For all americans with planning to travel we highly recommend, before the trip, to check with your medical provider if you are up-to-date with your regular vaccinations, then verify at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website if there are any specific health alerts in the area (state/city) you plan to visit. In the case specific of Brazil here is the CDC direct page.
Yellow fever vaccines are not required for visa application at the all the eight (8) Consulate General in the U.S, but yet recommended when travelers intend to visit the following States in Brazil: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Distrito Federal, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Rondônia and Tocantins.
Although Yellow Fever vaccines are not required for visa application Brazil may require an international certificate of vaccination against Yellow Fever upon entry for tourists from some countries: Angola, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Colombia, Ecuador, Gabon, Gambia, Gana, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Liberia, Nigeria, Peru, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Venezuela.
Please note that vaccinations requirements may change without prior notice. For further information, please access the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency’s website in english or the webpage for the Brazilian Ministry of Health for general health tips, specific precautions for pregnant women and helpful information regarding vaccination, the zika and malaria and more.
It’s good to reminder that there is no reciprocal health agreement with United States and full insurance is strongly recommended for the foreigner, specially, if he/she travels with kids. Public health care services in Brazil are free of charge, but may only be used by foreign tourists in the event of an emergency. In case of an emergency, the main hospital in São Paulo is the Hospital das Clínicas, while in Rio the Hospital Copa D’Oro and the Hospital Samaritano. In the event of a medical emergency, call 192 for an ambulance.
Tap water should not be drunk unless boiled or sterilized first. Even filtered water in more remote areas should be avoided and bottled water should be drunk instead. The standard of medical care is generally very good in major towns and cities of Brazil. English-speaking doctors are found mainly in the major cities of Brazil like São Paulo and Rio, but in general, the medical staff does not speak English.